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Angel Edu-Tech

Technology can no longer be viewed as a learning enhancer; it must be viewed as a foundational piece of living in the world...

Angel Edu-Tech

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Teachers lighten the burden of our future by giving accurate knowledge and Our life cannot be cherished without teachers...

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Ever Tried, Ever Failed, No Matter. Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better. Because, Positive attitude is a way to success in life...

Thursday, 26 July 2018

Nipah Virus

Information about Nipah Virus

Nipah virus outbreak was first reported from Kampung Sungai Nipah Malaysia in 1998. Nipah virus disease (NIV) is an emerging zoonotic (Which is transmitted from vertebrate animals to human beings) disease caused by a virus belonging to the Henipavirus genus.

This virus is a dangerous as Zika and Ebola virus that why WHO listed. This Nipah virus is eight priority disease that causes a global epidemic.
Nipah Virus actually the member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. It respiratory illness among pig farmers and people near living with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. It is a zoonotic virus. This virus can be transmitted to the human body from animals (Bats or Pigs), it can also be transmitted directly from human body to human body.

In Bangladesh and India, consumption of fruits or fruit products like raw date palm juice contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats was the most likely source of infection. Nipah virus spread directly from human to human whose close contact with people’s secretions excretion. In India’s city, Siliguri transmission of the virus was also reported within a health-care setting, where 75% of cases of hospital’s staff or there who visit. In Bangladesh whose people care of patients were infected with this virus due to transmission human body to human body directly from 2001 to 2008.

In case of zoonotic disease, the animal generally is just reservoir of that virus and may not be affected by that virus. In some cases, they do not even show the symptoms of illness. In case of Nipah virus, the natural host of the virus is fruit bats or flying fox. this is the natural host Nipah virus and fruit bat considered the reserver of disease because they contain close to sixty dangerous Pathogens they transmit a number of dangerous diseases including Nipah and as well as Ebola disease.

Scientist still researching on what stop the fruit bat effecting from the virus?

The Signs and Symptoms of Nipah Virus Infection
  • Fever and Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Muscle Pain.
  • A sore throat.
  • Vomiting.
  • Pneumonia
  • Illness.

Two days after the start of the symptom, the likelihood of the victim going to a coma increases, there is also the possibility of infection of encephalitis which affects the brain. An incubation period of the virus occurs from 5 to 14 days, after which its symptoms appear Common symptoms include a headache, vomiting fever nausea, drowsiness. In some cases, the person has some strain experience in the throat, stomach pain, the work of eyes may be having blurring. WHO prescribed intensive sportive unit. In this symptomatic treatment provided which means symptoms of the disease is controlled because there is no drug available.

Studies are suggested a few possible theories

  1. THEORY FIRST: These fruit bats has constant immunity with basically means that their immune system is functioning constantly unlike the immune system in a human being.
  2. THEORY SECOND: The fruit bat has a very high metabolic rate and they also have the very high body temperature.  
Nipah virus outbreak occurs only in three counties 1. Malaysia 2. Bangladesh 3. India.

TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE: This virus transmitted through the contact and transfer of body fluids. It is either transmitted through direct contact or exchange of body fluid.

How it spread in humans?

CASE I: When both human beings and animals can be infected by consuming the fruit which is already beaten by an infected bat.
The disease can directly transmit through blood urine and as well as excreta of fruit bat.
CASE II: When pig consume these fruit and they display a very rapid spread of the infection.
CASE III: Human can be affected by consuming the raw date palm sap(Fluid flow out of date palm tree) which is contaminated by bats.

Treatment & Prevention 

  1. To avoid direct contact with infected pigs, humans, and bats especially in endemic reason.
  2. Healthcare professional Who are attending these patients they should wear a mask and globes.
  3. By betterment of surveillance method and detection measure.
  4. Isolate the patient and shift them in ICU under observation.
  5. Hospital has to raise awareness about symptoms, transmission and human to human infection.
  6. They should work attentively on animal husbandry so that they could be monitored the spread of disease among animals.
Friends, We hope you like our information about Nipah Virus and benefitted by it.
Stay safe stay fit.

Wednesday, 18 July 2018

How does Neuron Work?

Neurons are specialized and unique cells of the nervous system that transmit signal throughout the body. finally, we can say neurons are a structural and functional unit of the human neural system. They are microscopic, the human brain has 100 billion neurons. Neurons also known as nerve cells. In this, we will study how neurons look like and how they work.

There are three germ layers in our body:

1. Endoderm  2. Mesoderm  3. Ectoderm.

Nervous tissue is ectodermal in origin except for microglia cells(Mesodermal). Microglia cell is a part of the nervous tissue.
Typically, a neuron contains three important parts:

     1. Cell Body: Cell body also called the soma that directs all activities of the neuron. This is the spherical part of the neuron. The cell body connects to the dendrites, which bring information to the neuron and the axon, which send information to the other neurons. When any information is received from another neuron than start the work of dendrites, dendrites pass the pass the signal to the cell body. After receiving a signal from dendrites than cell body may send the information to the axon, its depend on the strength of the signal. The main job of the cell body is to control all of the functions of the cells. It contains several important organelles that help it do this. The most important organelle is the nucleus. The nucleus contains cell's DNA and regulates all processes in the cell.

     2. Dendrites: The nervous system works as a manager in our body. It controls the functions of every other system. One of the most important structures in the cells is the dendrites. Dendrites are extensions of neurons that receive signals and conduct then towards the cell body. Dendrites are the structure on the neuron that receives electrical messages. Most neurons have multiple dendrites, and commonly hundreds of twig-like dendrites that cluster near the cell body. Dendrites are the second of the two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron. These are cellular extensions with many branches are specialized to receive chemical signals from the axon termini of the other neuron. Dendrites convert these signals into small electric impulses and transmit them to the cell body. 

     3. Axons: Axons looks like a long tail and transmits messages from the cell. Axons are a part of neurons that conduct signals are away from the cell body to other cells. At the end of the axon, the electrical signal is converted into a chemical signal, and the axon releases chemical messengers called neurotransmitter.  In human axons car reach lengths of over 3 feet but do you know a giraffe axon are along as 15 feet. In many cases, axon can be very long as such is known as a nerve fiber. The neuron does not have more than one axon, some axons may have branches and such branches may be considered near the end of an axon's length. An axon is one of two types of processes that extend from a neuron cell body, the other being dendrites.

when dendrite is not transmitting a signal it is in resting state . in this state a neuron develops a  negative charge inside and positive charge outside. the membrane is said to be polarized because -ve and +ve charge exists on opposite sides. This state is maintained by a sodium-potassium pump. three ions of sodium go out and two ions of potassium come in.

Depolarisation and Repolarisation: Depolarisation is the state which the cell membrane change from positive to negatively charged outside the cell from negative to positive inside the cell.

Repolarisation: is the state when the cell membrane change back it resting state mean from negative to positive charge outside the cell and from positive to negative charge inside the cell.
When the signal reaches the end of the axon. At the ends of the axon, the axon usually splits into several smaller branches. Each of these branches terminates at the other cell at a junction called a Synapse. When a signal reaches the synapses it triggers the release of a signaling molecule called Neurotransmitter. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the very short gap from axon to the surface of the target cell. The membrane of the target cell at synapse has lost of the receptor that neurotransmitter can specifically bind to, and these receptors are coupled to ion channel protein that is controlled by the receptor.

So, Readers, I hope that you like my post and I hope this will help you to understand that how the neuron works.

Monday, 16 July 2018

Hearing Loss

About Hearing Loss

The human can hear faster than they can see, taste, smell or feel. Once a sound wave reaches the ear the brain recognized it in just 0.05 second. In order to understand the hearing loss. we have to understand the anatomy of the ear. Sound comes in through the ear canal and as tympanic membrane (Ear Drum) vibrates the bones (Stirrup, anvil, and hammer) behind that also set into vibration and as this little bone vibrates.
It sets the fluid into motion inner ear. The hearing process begins when the sound waves enter the outer ear. Sound waves then reach the eardrum and cause it to move. The eardrum passes the vibrations into the inner ear. The inner ear is shaped like a snail and is called the Cochlea. Inside the cochlea, there are thousands of tiny hair cells and fluid present sound vibration cause the fluid to move which causes the hair cells to bend. These hair cells then convert the vibration into electrical signals which are transferred to the brain through the hearing nerve. The nerve impulses received by the brain is then interpreted as sound.

Each hair cell has a small patch of microscopic hair-like projections called Stereocilia. The sound makes the stereocilia
rock back and froth. If the sound is to loud the stereocilia can be bent or broken. This will cause the hair cell to die and it can no longer send sound signals to the brain. Hearing loss (Called Hearing Impairment) occurs when damage is done to any part of the hearing pathway. Hearing loss is the 3rd most common chronic health condition. Worldwide hearing loss affects 360 million people.

There are different types of hearing loss:
  1. Conductive hearing loss: this is most common is usually temporary. It is caused by a condition in the outer or middle ear. Conductive hearing loss can be a result of an excessive build-up of ear wave. It can also be due to the perforated eardrum or an ear infection with inflammation.
  2. Sensorineural hearing loss: it is occurring due to a damage of inner ear hair cell. This type of hearing loss is permanent. There inner ear hair cells do not repair themselves and cannot be medically regenerated once damaged.
  3. Mixed hearing loss: Sometimes conductive and sensorineural hearing loss occurs at the same time. This is called mixed hearing loss as the damage occurs in any part of the ear.

First sign of hearing loss: most people complain that people talk too fast. It is also accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ear). The ringing might be constant or occasional, but it is often the first sign of hearing loss.

Stress can cause hearing loss: it sounds weird but yes this is true. Hair cells in the inner ear rely on steady blood flow to receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients. Because of the stress our blood circulation disturbs. As we know that when we feel stressed hormone adrenaline reduces blood flow to ear affecting hearing. It can even cause immediate hearing loss. The symptoms of hearing loss due to stress include a stuffed feeling in ear, pressure or pain in the ear, complete loss of hearing is one or both ears.

Hearing Improvement: Yes, your hearing can be improved by considering Vitamin A and E with magnesium. Folic acid also keeps our ear sharp. Age-related hearing loss and noise-related hearing loss affect millions of people in America. But experts recommend that these essential nutrients are important for our audio. So, to prevent hearing loss we all should take dietary supplements.

In order to understand the hearing loss, you have to realize that you can have problems with each one of these different areas and develop hearing loss so a conduction hearing loss as the name implies is a hearing loss. Where conduction is impaired or blocked and conduction can be impaired by wax in the ear canal. It can be impaired by a congenitally closed of the ear canal. It can be impaired by a Tumour of the ear canal. It can be impaired by a hole in the eardrum. It can be impaired by a process in the Middle Ear like fluid.
It can be impaired by a Tumour, CHOLESTEATOMA(It is abnormal non-cancerous skin growth that can be developed in the middle section of the ear) in the middle ear. And it can also be impaired by fixation of little stapes bones or a condition called OTOSCLEROSIS(abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear) so in the conductive hearing loss.
The inner ear is working great but the problem is the sound is not quite getting to the inner ear.

We hope you like our information about Hearing Loss...


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