Wednesday, 18 July 2018

How does Neuron Work?

Neurons are specialized and unique cells of the nervous system that transmit signal throughout the body. finally, we can say neurons are a structural and functional unit of the human neural system. They are microscopic, the human brain has 100 billion neurons. Neurons also known as nerve cells. In this, we will study how neurons look like and how they work.

There are three germ layers in our body:

1. Endoderm  2. Mesoderm  3. Ectoderm.

Nervous tissue is ectodermal in origin except for microglia cells(Mesodermal). Microglia cell is a part of the nervous tissue.
Typically, a neuron contains three important parts:

     1. Cell Body: Cell body also called the soma that directs all activities of the neuron. This is the spherical part of the neuron. The cell body connects to the dendrites, which bring information to the neuron and the axon, which send information to the other neurons. When any information is received from another neuron than start the work of dendrites, dendrites pass the pass the signal to the cell body. After receiving a signal from dendrites than cell body may send the information to the axon, its depend on the strength of the signal. The main job of the cell body is to control all of the functions of the cells. It contains several important organelles that help it do this. The most important organelle is the nucleus. The nucleus contains cell's DNA and regulates all processes in the cell.

     2. Dendrites: The nervous system works as a manager in our body. It controls the functions of every other system. One of the most important structures in the cells is the dendrites. Dendrites are extensions of neurons that receive signals and conduct then towards the cell body. Dendrites are the structure on the neuron that receives electrical messages. Most neurons have multiple dendrites, and commonly hundreds of twig-like dendrites that cluster near the cell body. Dendrites are the second of the two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron. These are cellular extensions with many branches are specialized to receive chemical signals from the axon termini of the other neuron. Dendrites convert these signals into small electric impulses and transmit them to the cell body. 

     3. Axons: Axons looks like a long tail and transmits messages from the cell. Axons are a part of neurons that conduct signals are away from the cell body to other cells. At the end of the axon, the electrical signal is converted into a chemical signal, and the axon releases chemical messengers called neurotransmitter.  In human axons car reach lengths of over 3 feet but do you know a giraffe axon are along as 15 feet. In many cases, axon can be very long as such is known as a nerve fiber. The neuron does not have more than one axon, some axons may have branches and such branches may be considered near the end of an axon's length. An axon is one of two types of processes that extend from a neuron cell body, the other being dendrites.

when dendrite is not transmitting a signal it is in resting state . in this state a neuron develops a  negative charge inside and positive charge outside. the membrane is said to be polarized because -ve and +ve charge exists on opposite sides. This state is maintained by a sodium-potassium pump. three ions of sodium go out and two ions of potassium come in.

Depolarisation and Repolarisation: Depolarisation is the state which the cell membrane change from positive to negatively charged outside the cell from negative to positive inside the cell.

Repolarisation: is the state when the cell membrane change back it resting state mean from negative to positive charge outside the cell and from positive to negative charge inside the cell.
When the signal reaches the end of the axon. At the ends of the axon, the axon usually splits into several smaller branches. Each of these branches terminates at the other cell at a junction called a Synapse. When a signal reaches the synapses it triggers the release of a signaling molecule called Neurotransmitter. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the very short gap from axon to the surface of the target cell. The membrane of the target cell at synapse has lost of the receptor that neurotransmitter can specifically bind to, and these receptors are coupled to ion channel protein that is controlled by the receptor.

So, Readers, I hope that you like my post and I hope this will help you to understand that how the neuron works.

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