Thursday, 26 July 2018

Nipah Virus

Information about Nipah Virus

Nipah virus outbreak was first reported from Kampung Sungai Nipah Malaysia in 1998. Nipah virus disease (NIV) is an emerging zoonotic (Which is transmitted from vertebrate animals to human beings) disease caused by a virus belonging to the Henipavirus genus.

This virus is a dangerous as Zika and Ebola virus that why WHO listed. This Nipah virus is eight priority disease that causes a global epidemic.
Nipah Virus actually the member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. It respiratory illness among pig farmers and people near living with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. It is a zoonotic virus. This virus can be transmitted to the human body from animals (Bats or Pigs), it can also be transmitted directly from human body to human body.

In Bangladesh and India, consumption of fruits or fruit products like raw date palm juice contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats was the most likely source of infection. Nipah virus spread directly from human to human whose close contact with people’s secretions excretion. In India’s city, Siliguri transmission of the virus was also reported within a health-care setting, where 75% of cases of hospital’s staff or there who visit. In Bangladesh whose people care of patients were infected with this virus due to transmission human body to human body directly from 2001 to 2008.

In case of zoonotic disease, the animal generally is just reservoir of that virus and may not be affected by that virus. In some cases, they do not even show the symptoms of illness. In case of Nipah virus, the natural host of the virus is fruit bats or flying fox. this is the natural host Nipah virus and fruit bat considered the reserver of disease because they contain close to sixty dangerous Pathogens they transmit a number of dangerous diseases including Nipah and as well as Ebola disease.

Scientist still researching on what stop the fruit bat effecting from the virus?

The Signs and Symptoms of Nipah Virus Infection
  • Fever and Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Muscle Pain.
  • A sore throat.
  • Vomiting.
  • Pneumonia
  • Illness.

Two days after the start of the symptom, the likelihood of the victim going to a coma increases, there is also the possibility of infection of encephalitis which affects the brain. An incubation period of the virus occurs from 5 to 14 days, after which its symptoms appear Common symptoms include a headache, vomiting fever nausea, drowsiness. In some cases, the person has some strain experience in the throat, stomach pain, the work of eyes may be having blurring. WHO prescribed intensive sportive unit. In this symptomatic treatment provided which means symptoms of the disease is controlled because there is no drug available.

Studies are suggested a few possible theories

  1. THEORY FIRST: These fruit bats has constant immunity with basically means that their immune system is functioning constantly unlike the immune system in a human being.
  2. THEORY SECOND: The fruit bat has a very high metabolic rate and they also have the very high body temperature.  
Nipah virus outbreak occurs only in three counties 1. Malaysia 2. Bangladesh 3. India.

TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE: This virus transmitted through the contact and transfer of body fluids. It is either transmitted through direct contact or exchange of body fluid.

How it spread in humans?

CASE I: When both human beings and animals can be infected by consuming the fruit which is already beaten by an infected bat.
The disease can directly transmit through blood urine and as well as excreta of fruit bat.
CASE II: When pig consume these fruit and they display a very rapid spread of the infection.
CASE III: Human can be affected by consuming the raw date palm sap(Fluid flow out of date palm tree) which is contaminated by bats.

Treatment & Prevention 

  1. To avoid direct contact with infected pigs, humans, and bats especially in endemic reason.
  2. Healthcare professional Who are attending these patients they should wear a mask and globes.
  3. By betterment of surveillance method and detection measure.
  4. Isolate the patient and shift them in ICU under observation.
  5. Hospital has to raise awareness about symptoms, transmission and human to human infection.
  6. They should work attentively on animal husbandry so that they could be monitored the spread of disease among animals.
Friends, We hope you like our information about Nipah Virus and benefitted by it.
Stay safe stay fit.
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