Monday, 18 February 2019

EBOLA VIRUS: - A Less known dreadful Virus

Ebola is the deadliest virus known to man till now.  it greatly effects not only the humans but also animals like chimpanzees and Gorillas.  there is known known cure for Ebola virus make it especially devastating to infected patients, human and animals.  Ebola is classified as Zoonotic disease which mean that it can spread from animal to humans Ebola is common in third world countries specially Africa Ebola first appeared in 1976 this into simultaneous outbreak in Nazara, Sudan and Yambuku Republic of Congo.  this disease was found to originate in a village near Ebola river. Various outbreaks of disease have also been observed in chimpanzee and Gorillas.  this is a new virus so the transmission of disease to human body is unknown. But one infected the virus can spread through direct contact with blood or reaction of an infected person another way is though needles used on other patients in health facilities from this anyone close can become infected. The central nervous system is the affected along with damage to skin making it very weak and fragile at extreme level. Blood clots are also formed and after follow death.

Signs & Symptoms:

  1. The various take 2 to 21 days to show symptoms from the date of infection.
  2. First symptom is fever, intense weakness muscle pain, headache and Sore throat.
  3. Secondary symptoms are vomiting, diarrhoea Rash, impaired kidney and liver function and in certain cases, internal and external bleeding.
  4. Those suffering from EVD also record low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
  5. Alto victims may appear healthy they are still infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. Men who have recovered from disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery.

How the Ebola Virus attack?

  1. Virus enters body through contact with infected blood, urine, pieces semen another body fluid.
  2. It attacks immune system and destroy the Soldier of our body means the white blood cells.
  3. Then the infected cells transport the virus throughout the body forms blood clot that damage organs and also deplete floating agents.
  4. The immune system goes into dangerous overdrive known as cytokines stone ultimately turning against itself.
  5. The disease can attack or organs including brain liver kidney intestine Eyes and genitals.
  6. Overall vascular system damaged internal and external bleeding wounds mucous membrane.

Transmission of Ebola Virus:

  1. Evidence suggests that bats are the Reservoir hosts for Ebola virus carrying the virus can transmit it to other animals like apes, monkey and antelope as well as humans.
  2. A Spill over Event:  when an animal or human become infected with Ebola virus contact with reservoir host. This contact could occur through hunting or preparing the animal’s meat for eating.
  3. Human to human transmission:    Once the Ebola virus has infected the first human, transmission of the virus from one human to another it can occur through contact with the blood and body fluids of sick people or with the bodies of those who have died of Ebola.
  4. Survivors: Ebola survivors face new challenges after recovery some survivors report effect such as tiredness, muscle ache and can face stigma as they we enter their communities.

Treatment & Vaccines:

Supportive care re-hydration with oral or intravenous fluids and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival.  there is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.
However, arrange of potential treatments including blood products immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated no licence vaccines are available yet but 2 potential vaccines are undergoing human safety testing.

Controlling Infection in health care setting:

Human care workers should always take standard precaution when caring for patients, regardless of presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, safe injection practices and safe burial practices.

Healthcare workers should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with patients’ blood and body fluids and contaminated materials such as clothing, bedding. They should wear face protection, a clean non-sterile long-sleeved gown and gloves

We all know that there is no cure for this dreadful disease but for a relief a Texas based research team will begin trials on an experimental treatment for Ebola Virus.

ZMapp the monoclonal antibody combination therapy that was used to treat humans during 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak before even reaching human clinical trials will be further researched by Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio.

ZMapp functions as a combination of 3 humanised antibodies produced in genetically no deified tobacco plants that target 3 Ebola glycoprotein epitopes. If it proves efficacious and safe in animal models. It could be on track ti become the first Ebola treatment approved by US food and drug.
It was also tested in its first randomised, control trial as an accompanying therapy to standard care versus Mono-therapy Favipiravir in humans infected with a virus certain diagnosed in West Africa by polymerise chain reaction assay seventy-one patients from sites in Liberia, Sierra, Leona, Guinea and US. Were randomised to receive either therapy regimen.

We look forward to treatment with Mapp bio to perform pivotal studies that will transition ZMapp towards FDA licensure. Carrion lord in statement (He is Jr. PhD Associate scientist and Associate director of facility Bio safety level 4 laboratory).

New Rochelle, NY March 08 2018. A new study comparing the effectiveness of individual ZMapp antibodies versus a cocktail of antibodies, administered to mice testing recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) delivery vectors, showed the ability to achieve 100% protection against infection by Ebola virus. The study which reported the best result using a single rAAV- delivered antibody is published in human gene therapy a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Publishers. The researchers evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of three ZMapp antibodies (C2GA, C4G7 and C1326) and different doses and various routes of administration.

How ZMapp Works?

Like intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, ZMapp contains a mixture of neutralising antibodies that confer passive immunity to an individual, enhancing the normal immune response, and is designed to be administered after exposure to Ebola virus. Such antibodies have been used in treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases and intended to attack the virus by interfering with its surface and neutralising it to prevent further damage.



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